Spring Data JPA: CriteriaQuery Explained!

  • Post last modified:September 7, 2023
  • Reading time:2 mins read

Understanding Criteria Query with Use Case


  • JPA provides multiple ways to query data from the database such as JPQL, and Native SQL Queries, Using Repository methods.
  • One of the ways to interact with the database is by using Criteria API.
  • In this article, we will learn about Criteria API and how to use them to query databases.


  • We will use the BOOK_REVIEWS table for this example.
public class BookReview {

    @GeneratedValue(strategy= GenerationType.SEQUENCE, generator = "book_reviews_reviews_id_seq")
    @SequenceGenerator(name = "book_reviews_reviews_id_seq", sequenceName = "book_reviews_reviews_id_seq", allocationSize = 1)
    private Long reviewsId;
    private String userId;
    private String isbn;
    private String bookRating;

  // setters and getters

Criteria API

  • Criteria API provides a set of interfaces and classes that helps build & execute queries.
  • This interface allows us to write queries in Object oriented way so that we can skip the knowledge of writing raw SQL queries.

CriteriaBuilder & CriteriaQuery

  • The first step is to build the CriteriaBuilder object.
// creating criteria builder and query
 CriteriaBuilder builder = entityManager.getCriteriaBuilder();
  • Once we have a builder object we can construct a criteria query, which will be required to get the Root object and execution of the query.
CriteriaQuery<Long> criteriaQuery = builder.createQuery(Long.class);
Root<Account> accountRoot = criteriaQuery.from(Account.class);

Simple Query Execution

  • Once we have CriteriaQuery and Root, we can define our query such as Select.
// select query
  • The last step is to execute the query and get the result.
// execute and get the result
 return entityManager.createQuery(criteriaQuery).getSingleResult();

Result count

Conditional Query

// condition
Predicate[] conditions = new Predicate[1];
conditions[0] = builder.greaterThan(root.get("bookRating"), "3.0");

// select query

Result count


  • CriteriaQuery help us write SQL query in Object oriented way, which as a Java developer allow us to write more flexible queries without relying on RAW SQL query.
  • Apart from select queries, we can also perform delete, and update queries.

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